Archive for February, 2009

Health Risks, Smoking and Obesity Comparison

The study conductor(s)top
Dr. Martin Neovius (Karolinska Institute in Sweden)
The participant(s)top
45,000 men who underwent mandatory military conscription tests in Sweden
Date study concludedtop
February 1, 2009
Funded bytop

To determine the highest probable cause of death between cigarette smoking and obesity in males.


45,000 men were tested for health factors and questioned about their smoking habits for the purpose of following up with them later. During the follow up period 2,897 subjects died, the incidence of death was lowest for people with normal weight and highest in obese subjects. The risk of premature death also correlated heavily with the increase of the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

Methods usedtop

The participants all had their body mass index (BMI) measured and reported their smoking status at the age of 18 and were followed up for an average of 38 years.


Being overweight at the age of 18 increased the risk of premature death by just over a third, while being obese more than doubled the risk. Being underweight carried no increased risk, irrespective of smoking status. However, being seriously underweight (a body mass index of less than 17) carried the same risk of premature death as being overweight. The combination of obesity and heavy smoking was associated with a large excess risk of early death (almost five times greater than normal weight non-smokers). However, there was no statistically significant interaction between these two factors. This means that being overweight or obese at the age of 18 increases the risk of premature death regardless of smoking status. Early death was also linked to the number of cigarettes participants smoked per day. This risk gradually increased the more participants smoked, with heavy smokers at more than double the risk of premature death compared to non-smokers.

  • [_] This study does not take into account dietary factors.
  • [+] This study was peer reviewed prior to entering the Public Studies database.
External Sourcestop |
APA Citation(s)top
Health Risks, Smoking and Obesity Comparison. (2009).
   Retrieved January 21, 2018, from Public Studies Web site:
MLA Citation(s)top
“Health Risks, Smoking and Obesity Comparison”
   Public Studies. 1 February 2009.
   January 21, 2018. <>.