Personality changes, now and then


The study conductor(s)top
Prof. Jaap Dennissen (Humboldt University, Berlin)
The participant(s)top
103 children followed to adulthood
Date study concludedtop
February 2, 2007
Funded bytop
Humboldt University, other independent sources.
Purposetop

This study attempts to show a relationship from childhood behavior to adult behavior.

Summarytop

Shy children generally stayed shy, but “hyper or outgoing” children calmed down to an “average” level in adulthood.

Methods usedtop

To get an initial idea of the preschoolers’ personalities, the researchers surveyed both guardians and teachers when the children were ages 4, 5 and 6. Based on the observations of their teachers and guardians, the children were identified as having one of three personality types: over-controlled, under-controlled or resilient. Over-controlled equates to shy, under-controlled equates to “impulsive”, and resilient shows a “good” balance between the two. The parents were given questionnaires every year after the initial survey until the children were age 10, and then again at ages 12, 17, and 23.

Resultstop

Children labeled as over-controlled generally remain over-controlled through adulthood. Children who were labeled as under-controlled gained some self control over the years, and children who were labeled as resilient generally remained that way. One factor that may help the children develop normally is a part-time job during their teen years, according to Dennissen. He and his colleagues found that such work experience led to lower levels of aggressiveness among both the over-controlled and under-controlled kids. With the early job experience, teens learn some of the basic life’s rules, such as that aggression is met without reward, Dennissen explains.

Notestop
  • Parental behavior likely should have played a part in the study, but it’s generally similar results would indicate that may not be a factor.
  • This study validates the belief that working “temp” jobs as a youth increases one’s social skills.
External Sourcestop
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22554554/ | Journal of Personality, February 2007
APA Citation(s)top
Personality changes, now and then. (2007).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2007/02/personality-changes-now-and-then/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Personality changes, now and then”
   Public Studies. 2 February 2007.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2007/02/personality-changes-now-and-then/>.

Dogs and Cancer Detection


The study conductor(s)top
Tadeusz Jezierski (Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding), Michael McCulloch (Pine Street Foundation in San Anselmo, California)
The participant(s)top
Five canines; 55 lung and 31 breast cancer patients; 83 healthy control patients
Date study concludedtop
March 3, 2006
Funded bytop
This study was supported by the MACH Foundation (Fairfax, CA), Guide Dogs for the Blind (San Rafael, CA) and Frank and Carol Rosemayr (Kentfield, CA).
Purposetop

This study attempted to show that a canine could accurately detect certain types of cancer once trained to do so.

Summarytop

Trained canines can detect breast and lung cancer with 88% and 97% accuracy respectively.

Methods usedtop

Canines trained to detect cancer exhaled in breath were tested against samples from 86 cancer patients and 83 healthy control patients. The canines sat down next to a sample to indicate that the nearest sample contained the “cancer scent”.

Resultstop

The results showed that dogs can detect breast and lung cancer with sensitivity and specificity between 88 percent and 97 percent. The high accuracy persisted even after results were adjusted to take into account whether the lung cancer patients were currently smokers. Moreover, the study also confirmed that the trained dogs could even detect the early stages of lung cancer, as well as early breast cancer.

Notestop

This study fails to provide accuracy per breed or specific training methods, but the test results seem to indicate accurate training and therefore negates the relevancy of breed specific information.

External Sourcestop
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20060005201345data_trunc_sys.shtml | http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060106002944.htm | http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/01/0112_060112_dog_cancer.html
APA Citation(s)top
Dogs and Cancer Detection. (2006).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2006/03/dogs-and-cancer-detection/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Dogs and Cancer Detection”
   Public Studies. 3 March 2006.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2006/03/dogs-and-cancer-detection/>.

Willpower and Self-control, APA


The study conductor(s)top
Roy F. Baumeister, PhD, Eppes Professor of Psychology at Florida State University.
The participant(s)top
800 persons of mixed-gender, age, and race.
Date study concludedtop
June 1, 2003
Funded bytop
Florida State University
Purposetop

To determine if willpower can be modified, and how other behaviors effect the strength of the participants willpower.

Summarytop

The participants who either worked to train their “willpower”, or who expended little willpower are more likely to have impulse control and resist temptation. Willpower was discovered to be like a “gas tank” that can increase in capacity as an individual exercises willpower.

Methods usedtop

The study tested three theories on self-control. One theory treats self-control as a cognitive process, one as a learned skill and another as a behavior that requires willpower. Through a series of experiments with 800 participants, Baumeister used the theories to investigate the levels of energy required for exercising self-control and resisting temptationIn one of the experiments, participants who had skipped a meal were tempted with freshly baked cookies and chocolates. Some participants were instructed to resist the treats and instead eat radishes. They were then asked to complete an unsolvable geometric puzzle. In another experiment participants were instructed to control their emotional responses–by stifling or amplifying their reactions–as they viewed an upsetting video.

Resultstop

Those who resisted the treats tended to give up faster on the puzzle than participants who were allowed to indulge in the temptation or who had not been tempted with any food. Baumeister believes that they gave up faster because they’d already expended energy exercising self-control. A similar pattern emerged in the other experiment in which participants were instructed to control their emotional responses–by stifling or amplifying their reactions–as they viewed an upsetting video. The researchers then gauged their physical stamina by testing how long they could squeeze a handgrip device. Participants who controlled their emotions tended to give up faster on the task compared with those who did not have to suppress or control their emotions while watching the video.

Notestop

[+] This study has been peer reviewed by the American Psychological Association and Florida State University.
[-] The first study’s results may be due to the lack of glucose provided by radishes that could lead to giving up on the puzzles sooner, as the brain uses glucose as a primary source of fuel.

External Sourcestop
http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun03/selfcontrol.aspx
APA Citation(s)top
Willpower and Self-control, APA. (2003).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2003/06/197/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Willpower and Self-control, APA”
   Public Studies. 1 June 2003.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2003/06/197/>.