Archive for the ‘Animals’ Category

Monkeys’ Simple Math Abilities Compared To Humans.


The study conductor(s)top
Jessica Cantlon (graduate student, Duke University);
Elizabeth Brannon, PhD. (psychology professor, Duke University)
The participant(s)top
Two rhesus monkeys; 14 college students
Date study concludedtop
December 1, 2007
Funded bytop
Duke University in Durham, N.C.
Purposetop

To help determine how far back, evolutionarily, that basic math skills go.

Summarytop

On the addition math test, college students scored correctly 94 percent of the time on average and the monkeys scored correctly 76 percent of the time.

Methods usedtop

The participants had to add two sets of dots together. They were each shown one set of dots on a computer touchscreen for a half-second, and then another set a half-second later. They were then shown two separate clusters of dots at the same time, one of which was the correct sum of the first two sets.

Resultstop

The college students did better than the monkeys, scoring correct 94 percent on average compared to the monkey’s 76 percent. Like the college students, the more similar in size the two given choices were, the more the monkeys had a hard time picking the right answer. This suggests monkeys and humans were adding up numbers in their heads in a similar way. Supporting this notion is the fact that both humans and monkeys found it harder to pick the right choice the larger the numbers got.

Notestop
  • From an evolutionary standpoint, monkeys would have math skills because “math could help monkeys and other animals choose larger amounts of food or gauge the size of a rival group.”, according to Cantlon.
External Sourcestop
Video: http://www.duke.edu/web/mind/level2/faculty/liz/addition.htm | http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,317526,00.html | Monitor on Psychology Volume 38, No. 3 March 2007 | http://www.duke.edu/web/mind/level2/faculty/liz/Publications/APA%20Online%202007.pdf
APA Citation(s)top
Monkeys’ Simple Math Abilities Compared To Humans.. (2007).
   Retrieved August 16, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2007/12/monkeys-simple-math-abilities-compared-to-humans/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Monkeys’ Simple Math Abilities Compared To Humans.”
   Public Studies. 1 December 2007.
   August 16, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2007/12/monkeys-simple-math-abilities-compared-to-humans/>.

Dogs and Cancer Detection


The study conductor(s)top
Tadeusz Jezierski (Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding), Michael McCulloch (Pine Street Foundation in San Anselmo, California)
The participant(s)top
Five canines; 55 lung and 31 breast cancer patients; 83 healthy control patients
Date study concludedtop
March 3, 2006
Funded bytop
This study was supported by the MACH Foundation (Fairfax, CA), Guide Dogs for the Blind (San Rafael, CA) and Frank and Carol Rosemayr (Kentfield, CA).
Purposetop

This study attempted to show that a canine could accurately detect certain types of cancer once trained to do so.

Summarytop

Trained canines can detect breast and lung cancer with 88% and 97% accuracy respectively.

Methods usedtop

Canines trained to detect cancer exhaled in breath were tested against samples from 86 cancer patients and 83 healthy control patients. The canines sat down next to a sample to indicate that the nearest sample contained the “cancer scent”.

Resultstop

The results showed that dogs can detect breast and lung cancer with sensitivity and specificity between 88 percent and 97 percent. The high accuracy persisted even after results were adjusted to take into account whether the lung cancer patients were currently smokers. Moreover, the study also confirmed that the trained dogs could even detect the early stages of lung cancer, as well as early breast cancer.

Notestop

This study fails to provide accuracy per breed or specific training methods, but the test results seem to indicate accurate training and therefore negates the relevancy of breed specific information.

External Sourcestop
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20060005201345data_trunc_sys.shtml | http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060106002944.htm | http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/01/0112_060112_dog_cancer.html
APA Citation(s)top
Dogs and Cancer Detection. (2006).
   Retrieved August 16, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2006/03/dogs-and-cancer-detection/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Dogs and Cancer Detection”
   Public Studies. 3 March 2006.
   August 16, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2006/03/dogs-and-cancer-detection/>.