Archive for the ‘Biology’ Category

High Fructose Corn Syrup and Obesity


The study conductor(s)top
Bart Hoebel, Professor of Psychology, Princeton Neuroscience Institute
The participant(s)top
TKEM Lab Rats
Date study concludedtop
March 22, 2010
Funded bytop
Princeton Neuroscience Institute
Purposetop

To determine if a link exists between high-fructose corn syrup consumption and obesity when compared with sugar.

Summarytop

The experiment found that rats consuming high-fructose corn syrup were much more likely to become obese and have various health problems, especially with cholesterol.

Methods usedtop

In an initial experiment, Hoebel and colleagues from the Princeton Neuroscience Institute gave male rats water sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup or sucrose (standard table sugar) in addition to their standard diet of rat feed. The concentration of sugar was roughly the same as that found in commercial sodas, while the concentration of high-fructose corn syrup was half that found in soda.

Resultstop

The study, published online in the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, found that, not only did rats consuming high-fructose corn syrup gain more weight than those eating sugar, but they also had abnormal increases in body fat, particularly in the abdomen and in the form of elevated triglyceride levels in the blood. In a second experiment, researchers tracked weight gain, body fat and triglycerides in rats eating only rat feed, compared with those regularly consuming high-fructose corn syrup. Researchers found that, compared with those on a standard rat diet, those eating the high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight, and had higher concentrations of body fat and triglycerides, symptoms in keeping with what is known as metabolic syndrome in humans. Male rats in particular put on a significant amount of excess weight during the six-month study, gaining 48% more weight than those on the standard diet.

Notestop

[+] This study has been peer reviewed and validated by various researchers from Princeton.

External Sourcestop
http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S26/91/22K07/
http://wellness.blogs.time.com/2010/03/23/study-high-fructose-corn-syrup-causes-more-weight-gain/
APA Citation(s)top
High Fructose Corn Syrup and Obesity. (2010).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2010/03/high-fructose-corn-syrup-and-obesity/
MLA Citation(s)top
“High Fructose Corn Syrup and Obesity”
   Public Studies. 22 March 2010.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2010/03/high-fructose-corn-syrup-and-obesity/>.

Blood Glucose Response


The study conductor(s)top
Public Studies
The participant(s)top
1 Caucasian Male (control)
Date study concludedtop
October 1, 2009
Funded bytop
Public Studies (publicstudies.com)
Purposetop

To demonstrate the base changes certain foods have on blood glucose level for a single individual while categorizing the foods, as it is suggested that the blood glucose response helps dictate a person’s weight gain, but that is for another study.

Summarytop

This study tests the blood glucose response of certain foods in a single individual (for control). Refined carbohydrates seem to produce the highest level of blood glucose response, these include but are not limited to: white bread; wholegrain bread; potatoes; sugar. The highest changes were seen with sugar (raising an average of 53 points, as opposed to 5 points which a carrot causes) and breads.

Methods usedtop

Standard measurements with a +/-5 accuracy blood meter, obtained 3 times per reading (three separate fingers) and averaged. For three readings taken immediately after 8 hours of sleep, second reading taken at 15 minutes after eating, third reading taken 1 hour after eating.

Resultstop

Results:

Food Portion Pre 15 Min 1 Hour H Difference
White Bread 1 slice 97 125 117 28
Wholegrain Rye Bread 1 slice 98 123 115 25
Pizza 1 slice 98 122 118 24
(Breaburn) Apple 1 medium 97 106 101 9
Notestop
  • [-] This study is specific for the individual, while these results may correlate with others, it is not intended to be a guide of any sort.
  • [_] Only enzyme treated (commonly found in store bought breads in the US) was used, there may be different results for non-enzyme treated bread.
External Sourcestop
Public Studies Original
APA Citation(s)top
Blood Glucose Response. (2009).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2009/10/blood-glucose-response/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Blood Glucose Response”
   Public Studies. 1 October 2009.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2009/10/blood-glucose-response/>.

Health Risks, Smoking and Obesity Comparison


The study conductor(s)top
Dr. Martin Neovius (Karolinska Institute in Sweden)
The participant(s)top
45,000 men who underwent mandatory military conscription tests in Sweden
Date study concludedtop
February 1, 2009
Funded bytop
Unknown
Purposetop

To determine the highest probable cause of death between cigarette smoking and obesity in males.

Summarytop

45,000 men were tested for health factors and questioned about their smoking habits for the purpose of following up with them later. During the follow up period 2,897 subjects died, the incidence of death was lowest for people with normal weight and highest in obese subjects. The risk of premature death also correlated heavily with the increase of the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

Methods usedtop

The participants all had their body mass index (BMI) measured and reported their smoking status at the age of 18 and were followed up for an average of 38 years.

Resultstop

Being overweight at the age of 18 increased the risk of premature death by just over a third, while being obese more than doubled the risk. Being underweight carried no increased risk, irrespective of smoking status. However, being seriously underweight (a body mass index of less than 17) carried the same risk of premature death as being overweight. The combination of obesity and heavy smoking was associated with a large excess risk of early death (almost five times greater than normal weight non-smokers). However, there was no statistically significant interaction between these two factors. This means that being overweight or obese at the age of 18 increases the risk of premature death regardless of smoking status. Early death was also linked to the number of cigarettes participants smoked per day. This risk gradually increased the more participants smoked, with heavy smokers at more than double the risk of premature death compared to non-smokers.

Notestop
  • [_] This study does not take into account dietary factors.
  • [+] This study was peer reviewed prior to entering the Public Studies database.
External Sourcestop
http://www.physorg.com/news154768226.html | http://www.webmd.com/news/20090225/teen-obesity-as-deadly-as-smoking
APA Citation(s)top
Health Risks, Smoking and Obesity Comparison. (2009).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2009/02/health-risks-smoking-and-obesity-comparison/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Health Risks, Smoking and Obesity Comparison”
   Public Studies. 1 February 2009.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2009/02/health-risks-smoking-and-obesity-comparison/>.

Autism diagnosis and environment


The study conductor(s)top
University of California researchers
The participant(s)top
Population sample of reported cases of Autism in CA from 1990 to 2001
Date study concludedtop
January 1, 2009
Funded bytop
State of California
Purposetop

To isolate a statistically significant probably cause of Autism

Summarytop

More than 3,000 new cases of autism were reported in California in 2006, compared with 205 in 1990. This increase does not correlate with increased willingness or ability to diagnose this condition. Changes in how and when doctors diagnose the disorder and when state officials report it can explain less than half of the increase. In 1990, 6.2 of every 10,000 children born in the state were diagnosed with autism by the age of five, compared with 42.5 in 10,000 born in 2001.

Methods usedtop

Sample analysis. Hertz-Picciotto and Lora Delwiche of the UC Davis Department of Public Health Sciences analyzed 17 years of state data that tracks developmental disabilities, and used birth records and Census Bureau data to calculate the rate of autism and age of diagnosis.

Resultstop

California’s sevenfold increase in autism cannot be explained by changes in doctors’ diagnoses and most likely is due to environmental exposures. The researchers have theorized that a pregnant woman’s exposure to chemical pollutants, particularly metals and pesticides, could be altering a developing baby’s brain structure, triggering autism.

Notestop

[+] This study was peer reviewed at the source.
[-] This study does not isolate a single environmental substance.
[+] There has been a followup study that confirms these findings: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/stephen-barrie-nd/child-autism-epidemic-fir_b_696179.html & http://personalizedmedicine.posterous.com/environmental-factors-contributing-to-the-ons#

External Sourcestop
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=autism-rise-driven-by-environment
APA Citation(s)top
Autism diagnosis and environment. (2009).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2009/01/autism-diagnosis-and-environment/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Autism diagnosis and environment”
   Public Studies. 1 January 2009.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2009/01/autism-diagnosis-and-environment/>.

Low Carb, Mediterranean, and Low Fat diet results.


The study conductor(s)top
Investigator: Dr. Meir Stampfer, (co-chair of Brigham and Women’s Hospital’s Channing Laboratory in Boston, Mass.); Researchers: various individuals at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel.
The participant(s)top
322 obese adults
Date study concludedtop
June 1, 2008
Funded bytop
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel
Purposetop

To determine which diet (if any) provides the best health benefits coupled with weight (fat) loss in obese people.

Summarytop

Individuals on a low-carb diest lost 12 pounds, those on a Mediterranean diet lost 10 lbs, and those on a low-fat diet lost 7 pounds.

Methods usedtop

Individuals were split up and placed on three different diet regimens for two years: a low-carb diet, a low-fat diet, and a Mediterranean diet. Their weight and health readings (cholesterol, blood sugar/a1c) were sampled before and after the study. The low-carb diet was less than 40 grams of carbohydrates per day, the Mediterranean diet consisted of high levels of vegetables, fruit, fish and poultry, medium levels of whole grains, low levels of red meat and dairy, and very low levels of sugar. The low-fat diet was 30% of calories from fat, as recommended by the America Heart Association.

Resultstop

The highest weight loss was seen with the low-carb diet (12 lbs), and then in the Mediterranean diet (10 lbs), and lastly in the low-fat diet (7 lbs). Researchers found that a low-fat diet also bestowed the least health benefits on the dieters compared with the Mediterranean and low-carb diets. Those on the Mediterranean diet were most likely to have improvements in blood sugar levels, while those on the low carb diet had the most improvement in cholesterol levels.

Notestop
  • Rather than a traditional low-fat diet which designates that only 10 percent of calories should be derived from fat — researchers assigned subjects in the low-fat diet group to a plan based on the American Heart Association guidelines, which derives 30 percent of its calories from fat.
External Sourcestop
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Diet/story?id=5389423&page=1
APA Citation(s)top
Low Carb, Mediterranean, and Low Fat diet results.. (2008).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2008/06/low-carb-med/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Low Carb, Mediterranean, and Low Fat diet results.”
   Public Studies. 1 June 2008.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2008/06/low-carb-med/>.

White Bread, Sugary Cereals and Health Problems


The study conductor(s)top
Lead Author: Alan Barclay (University of Sydney)
The participant(s)top
2 million people (from 37 peer reviewed diet studies)
Date study concludedtop
March 1, 2008
Funded bytop
University of Sydney, Australia
Purposetop

To determine a common food that contributes to health problems.

Summarytop

The study found that high GI foods (potatoes, white bread, sugar) increase occurrences of certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.

Methods usedtop

The researchers critically analyzed the results from 37 diet studies and mapped health issues with the types of foods consumed.

Resultstop

The results found a link between a high GI (Glycemic Index) diet consisting of highly processed foods and a high risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. The diet was also linked to gall stones and some types of cancer. Lead author Alan Barclay said the link with diabetes was “not surprising” because high GI foods raise blood glucose and insulin levels. High GI foods cause constant spikes in blood glucose which increase insulin and a related substance called ‘insulin-like growth factor one’, both of which have been shown to increase the risk of developing cancer.

Notestop
  • [+]This study contains a massive(>100,000) sample size.
  • [+]This study was peer reviewed prior to entering the Public Studies database.
External Sourcestop
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,336390,00.html | American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23349006-36398,00.html
APA Citation(s)top
White Bread, Sugary Cereals and Health Problems. (2008).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2008/03/white-bread-sugary-cereals-and-health-problems/
MLA Citation(s)top
“White Bread, Sugary Cereals and Health Problems”
   Public Studies. 1 March 2008.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2008/03/white-bread-sugary-cereals-and-health-problems/>.

Monkeys’ Simple Math Abilities Compared To Humans.


The study conductor(s)top
Jessica Cantlon (graduate student, Duke University);
Elizabeth Brannon, PhD. (psychology professor, Duke University)
The participant(s)top
Two rhesus monkeys; 14 college students
Date study concludedtop
December 1, 2007
Funded bytop
Duke University in Durham, N.C.
Purposetop

To help determine how far back, evolutionarily, that basic math skills go.

Summarytop

On the addition math test, college students scored correctly 94 percent of the time on average and the monkeys scored correctly 76 percent of the time.

Methods usedtop

The participants had to add two sets of dots together. They were each shown one set of dots on a computer touchscreen for a half-second, and then another set a half-second later. They were then shown two separate clusters of dots at the same time, one of which was the correct sum of the first two sets.

Resultstop

The college students did better than the monkeys, scoring correct 94 percent on average compared to the monkey’s 76 percent. Like the college students, the more similar in size the two given choices were, the more the monkeys had a hard time picking the right answer. This suggests monkeys and humans were adding up numbers in their heads in a similar way. Supporting this notion is the fact that both humans and monkeys found it harder to pick the right choice the larger the numbers got.

Notestop
  • From an evolutionary standpoint, monkeys would have math skills because “math could help monkeys and other animals choose larger amounts of food or gauge the size of a rival group.”, according to Cantlon.
External Sourcestop
Video: http://www.duke.edu/web/mind/level2/faculty/liz/addition.htm | http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,317526,00.html | Monitor on Psychology Volume 38, No. 3 March 2007 | http://www.duke.edu/web/mind/level2/faculty/liz/Publications/APA%20Online%202007.pdf
APA Citation(s)top
Monkeys’ Simple Math Abilities Compared To Humans.. (2007).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2007/12/monkeys-simple-math-abilities-compared-to-humans/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Monkeys’ Simple Math Abilities Compared To Humans.”
   Public Studies. 1 December 2007.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2007/12/monkeys-simple-math-abilities-compared-to-humans/>.

Dogs and Cancer Detection


The study conductor(s)top
Tadeusz Jezierski (Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding), Michael McCulloch (Pine Street Foundation in San Anselmo, California)
The participant(s)top
Five canines; 55 lung and 31 breast cancer patients; 83 healthy control patients
Date study concludedtop
March 3, 2006
Funded bytop
This study was supported by the MACH Foundation (Fairfax, CA), Guide Dogs for the Blind (San Rafael, CA) and Frank and Carol Rosemayr (Kentfield, CA).
Purposetop

This study attempted to show that a canine could accurately detect certain types of cancer once trained to do so.

Summarytop

Trained canines can detect breast and lung cancer with 88% and 97% accuracy respectively.

Methods usedtop

Canines trained to detect cancer exhaled in breath were tested against samples from 86 cancer patients and 83 healthy control patients. The canines sat down next to a sample to indicate that the nearest sample contained the “cancer scent”.

Resultstop

The results showed that dogs can detect breast and lung cancer with sensitivity and specificity between 88 percent and 97 percent. The high accuracy persisted even after results were adjusted to take into account whether the lung cancer patients were currently smokers. Moreover, the study also confirmed that the trained dogs could even detect the early stages of lung cancer, as well as early breast cancer.

Notestop

This study fails to provide accuracy per breed or specific training methods, but the test results seem to indicate accurate training and therefore negates the relevancy of breed specific information.

External Sourcestop
http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20060005201345data_trunc_sys.shtml | http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060106002944.htm | http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/01/0112_060112_dog_cancer.html
APA Citation(s)top
Dogs and Cancer Detection. (2006).
   Retrieved October 23, 2017, from Public Studies Web site:
   http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2006/03/dogs-and-cancer-detection/
MLA Citation(s)top
“Dogs and Cancer Detection”
   Public Studies. 3 March 2006.
   October 23, 2017. <http://www.publicstudies.com/main/2006/03/dogs-and-cancer-detection/>.